Indian Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology

Print ISSN: 2393-9079

Online ISSN: 2393-9087

CODEN : IJPPTK

Indian Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology (IJPP) open access, peer-reviewed quarterly journal publishing since 2014 and is published under auspices of the Innovative Education and Scientific Research Foundation (IESRF), aim to uplift researchers, scholars, academicians, and professionals in all academic and scientific disciplines. IESRF is dedicated to the transfer of technology and research by publishing scientific journals, more...


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Chaudhry: Corona vaccine approach

“ I have no special talents, I am only passionately curious — Albert Einstein

Dear readers, effective control of COVID -19 through vaccination remains effective measure to control mass viral spread. Curiosity and integrity of researchers will strive to control this devastating disease.

Treatment of any form of illness, invokes physicians curiosity for bestowing proper remedy. The prophylactic remedy is proper vaccination.

The infectivity of the SARS-CoV-2 virus is very high compared to other corona viruses reported so far, an effective vaccine is the best way to contain the rapidly escalating proliferation of this infection.

A COVID & #8209;19 vaccine is a vaccine intended to provide acquired immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2), the virus that causes corona virus disease 2019 (COVID‑19).

Coronaviruses have a large (30 + kb) single-stranded positive sense RNA genome encased by a helical nucleocapsid (N) and an outer envelope comprised of matrix protein (M), envelope protein € and spike proteins (S). S protein was found to elicit neutralising antibody and is a major target antigen for vaccine development.

Figure 1
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Currently, 39 coronavirus vaccines are in different stages of clinical trials globally, out of which 6 are from India, 13 from China, and 20 from other countries.Currently available vaccines in Indian market

Table 1

Difference between sputnik v and the other two vaccines

Sputnik

Covishield and covaxin

Developed by gamaleya research institute of epidemiology in association with Dr. Reddy’s

Covishield is developed by the SII, Oxford university and astrazeneca whereas covaxin is developed by bharat biotech and ICMR

91.6 percent effective

Covishield can be up to 90% effective and covaxin has been found to be 78-81% effective. In completed Phase III trial , Covaxin is 77.8% effective.

The interval between the 2 doses is likely to be 21 days up to 8 weeks.

The gap between the doses of covishiled and covaxin are respectively 12-16 weeks and 4-6 weeks

Covishield is the better known. It’s a version of the Oxford University-AstraZeneca vaccine that was found to have an average efficacy of 70.4% in a peer reviewed study. A study has found 0.03% of people caught COVID after the 2nd dose of Covishield and 0.04% tested positive after the 2nd dose of Covaxin. Covaxin will have to gather more data and needs to be presented at WHO so that it is marketed globally.

Table 2

Introduction of Pfizer/BioNTech and moderna vaccines in indian market

Characteristics

Pfizer/ BioNtech vaccine

Moderna vaccine

Type of vaccine

mRNA (BNT162b2)

mRNA (mRNA-1273)

Dose

Each dose contains 30 μg (0.3 mL)

Each dose contains 50 μg (0.5 mL)

Number of injections

2 injections, given 21 days apart

2 injections, given 28 days apart

Effectiveness

95% in preventing the SARS-COV-2infection14.

94.5% in preventing the SARS-COV-2 infection

Storage

Multiple dose vials are stored between-80ºC and -60ºC

Multiple-dose vials are stored between-25º and -15ºC

The most common side effect is soreness at the site of injection. Other side effects include fatigue, headache, muscle aches, chills, joint pain, and possibly some fever. Side effects were more frequent after the second dose in the vaccine trials.

Coadministration of vaccines: If required, COVID-19 vaccine and other vaccines should be separated by an interval of at least 14 days. Interchangeability of COVID-19 vaccines is not permitted: Second dose should also be of the same COVID-19 vaccine which was administered as the first dose.

Contraindications: Persons with history of Anaphylactic or allergic reaction to a pervious dose of COVID-19 vaccine or Immediate or delayed-onset anaphylaxis or allergic reaction to vaccines or injectable therapies, pharmaceutical products, food-items etc.

The dataset tracks the total number of COVID-19 vaccinations administered in each country, broken down by first and second doses (where national data is available), and derived daily vaccination rates and population-adjusted figures

Corona vaccine dashboard: By the end of this year, India is likely to have nearly dozen vaccines. New intranasal vaccine BBV154 creates an immune response at the site of infection (in the nasal mucosa). This helps to block both infection and transmission of Covid-19. This will reduce the gap between supply and demand and also bring down the prices. On 21st august 2021, drug controller general of India (DCGI) granted emergency use approval to Zydus Cadila's needle-free vaccine, ZyCoV-D, the world’s first ever DNA based vaccine against the SARs-COV-2 virus. Uses jet injector. Valid for children above 12 years.

Figure 2
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Corona virus has crescendo and decendo pattern as the mutant strains keep appearing, leading to optimal hit at peak. Option to vaccinate more population with lead to mass immunity conferring bodys ability to fight infection.

We as responsible citizens, must abide to government’s vaccination program and proper use of measures like masks, adhering to distance philosophy for long duration will make this virus extinct. Time is only solution.



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© This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Article type

Editorial


Article page

177-178


Authors Details

Sunil Chaudhry


Article History

Received : 20-07-2021

Accepted : 10-08-2021

Available online : 04-09-2021


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