Indian Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology

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Begum, Sadiq, Subhani, Gulnaaz, Mohsin, and Devi: Insight of medical students on online teaching during COVID-19 pandemic-A survey


Introduction

Digital educating devices have become frequently used and has become current norm, instructional institutions all over the world are pursuing ways to teach students during the globally widespread disease efficiently.1 Medical students are the future of maintainable health structures that are critically under duress during COVID-19, while ensuring the integrity and continuity of the process of medical schooling. The COVID-19 pandemic has tested the limits of healthcare systems and challenged conventional practices in medical education challenges faced2

Materials and Methods

After the Institutional Ethics Clearance, this online cross-sectional survey was done on medical students. The information was anonymized and arbitrarily coded so as to make sure detachment with any identity of the participant. A total of 211 students participated out of 250 students from the first and the second year MBBS course, This online survey was carried out from May10, 2021, to May 20, 2021.

It is a cross sectional survey study based on set of questions. The first set of debrief consisted of demographic elements like age, sex, social and economic factors and gadget used for online learning.

After that a second set of questionnaire was given to the students which was based on the usefulness of learning through online classes and their understanding of usefulness level. This set of probing was self-designed based on 5-point likert system.3 This was pretested on 25 students for standardization. All the medical students willingly participated in the survey. All ages of students were between 18-19years

Questionnaire

The questionnaire (see Questionnaire, supplemental content) was developed by the authors for this study and it was assessed by the bioethics committee. The questionnaire consisted of two parts.

In the first part they were asked about the demographic details (age, gender, year of study, gadget used for online learning, yearly income, internet connectivity).

In the second part respondents were given questions regarding usefulness of online teaching on a Likert scale (1-much less helpful, 5-much more helpful).

In the third part students were asked whether they agreed or disagreed on a Likert scale (1-strongly disagree to 5-strongly agree)4

Results

In this cross-sectional survey conducted after 18 months of unprecedented global widespread disease, we capture a snapshot and gain insight into the effects of pandemic on Indian medical students learning and teaching. Many students responded (211). In this survey, a total of 211 medical students participated from the first and the second year MBBS. From the second year 110 and third year 101 participated. The survey was carried out after 18 months of online classes.

Descriptive statistics of ‘Perceptions of medical students on online teaching’ values are expressed as frequency, percentage, mean and S. D and graphical representation using bar and pi-chart. The evaluation of the reliability-internal consistency of the questionnaire was done using the Cronbach’s alpha reliability test. We analyzed the data using SPSS Version 22 (SPSS Institute, Chicago, IL, USA).

Demographic data

Figure 1
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Table 1

Gender

Frequency

Percent

Male

71

33.6

Female

140

66.4

Total

211

100

[i] Table 1, Figure 1 showing percentage participation-females participated more >66%, where as male only 33.6%

Table 2

Socioeconomic status

Frequency

Percent

Yearly income <5 lakh

95

45

Yearly income 5-10 lakh

74

35.1

Yearly income >10 lakh

42

19.9

Total

211

100

[i] Table 2, Figure 2 showing most of the students (45%) 95 out of 211yearly income is < 5 lakh,19.9 %(42 out of 211) yearly income is >10 lakh and 35%(74 out of 211) yearly income is in between 5 and 10 lakh.

Figure 2
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Table 3

Which software gadjet you use

Frequency

Percent

Laptop

39

18.5

Personal computer

2

0.9

Mobile

153

72.5

Tablet

17

8.1

Total

211

100

[i] Table 3, Figure 3 shows maximum number 153 out of 211(72%) of students use mobile for online classes and very less number use 2 out of 211 (0.9) use Personal computer.

Figure 3
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Table 4

Network connectivity

Frequency

Percent

Poor

18

8.5

Moderate

127

60.2

Good

66

31.3

Total

211

100

[i] Table 4 Showing in maximum areas the internet connectivity is moderate 127 out of 211 (60%), where as it is good only in 66 out of 211(31%) house holds and poor connection in 18 out of 211 homes (8.5%).

Figure 4
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Table 5 Showing online teaching to bemuch time saving 47 out of 211(22.3%) (mean 2.9) some what more helpful, and effectiveness of online learning is that constructive balance of practical and theoretical knowledge is less helpful (mean 1.73). 115 out of 211(82.4%) say that constructive balance of practical and theoretical knowledge is not helpful. Effectiveness of online classes on the parameter of Reaching individual teaching demands 143 out of 211(67.2%) believe it to be less helpful. Effectiveness of online teaching on the parameter of Improved learning method, the students 139 out of 211(65.9) believe online method is less helpful. Only 29 out of 211 students 13.7% are able to Communicate effectively, so maximum do not communicate (less helpful) 92 out of 211(43.6%).128 out of 211(60.6%).

Effectiveness in clearing doubts is much less helpful 128 of 211 (60.6%), only 17 out of 211(11.1) are able to clear doubts. 174 out of 211(82.4%) are less helpful to adapt to class timings where as 4 out of 211 are able to adapt(more helpful). Effectiveness of online learning in respect Easy accessibility to Faculty parameter 67 out of 211 (31.8) are less helpful and 97 out of 211 (46%) is helpful only 47 out of 211(22.3%) believe effectiveness of online teaching is more helpful in accessibility to faculty. In respect to effectiveness of online learning in self disciplined learning parameter the students 92 out of 211 (43.6%) the students feel it is less helpful and only for 37 out of 211 (17.5%) it is more helpful.

This table shows that most of the students mean score near to 2.5, which means that most of the students are agreeing (neutral) to the satisfaction level of students with regarding to online learning.

Satisfaction level of assessment of applied and academic proficiency provided by the classes by students is 62 out of 211 disagree 119 are neutral and 30 are agree that they are satisfied,

Satisfaction level of the class material provide to students was beneficial to 59 students(27.9%), 117(55.5%) agree and 35 students out of 211(16.6%) disagree that it is beneficial, satisfaction level of students with regard to competent approach to online medical education,83 students (39.3%), neutral are 84students (39.8%) and 44 students (28.9%) agree and are satisfied.

Table 5

Shows effectiveness of online learning based on 10 parameters

Effectiveness of Online learning

Much less helpful (%)

Somewhat less helpful (%)

Equally helpful (%)

Somewhat more helpful (%)

Much more helpful (%)

Reaching individual teaching demands?

37(17.5)

106(50.2)

56(26.5)

9(4.3)

3(1.4)

Establishing ability and understanding?

34(16.1)

105(49.8)

60(28.4)

11(5.2)

1(0.5)

Improved learning method?

53(25.1)

81(38.4)

55(26.1)

18(8.5)

4(1.9)

Communicate effectively?

39(18.5)

53(25.1)

90(42.7)

19(9)

10(4.7)

Clearing doubts beneficially

49(23.2)

79(37.4)

66(31.3)

13(6.2)

4(1.9)

Constructive balance of practical and theoretical knowledge

52(24.6)

63(29.9)

76(36)

14(6.6)

6(2.8)

Adaptable to class timings

99(46.9)

75(35.5)

33(15.6)

4(1.9)

0(0)

Easy accessibility to faculty

27(12.8)

40(19)

97(46)

31(14.7)

16(7.6)

Self disciplined learning?

40(19)

52(24.6)

82(38.9)

25(11.8)

12(5.7)

Time saving ?

35(16.6)

43(20.4)

56(26.5)

47(22.3)

30(14.2)

Table 6

Satisfaction level of students with regarding to online learning

Mean

SD

Do you agree with the assessment of applied and academic proficiency provided by these classes?

2.77

0.802

How beneficent was the class material provided to you

3.08

0.87

There is a competent approach as regards to online medical education

2.7

0.957

Table 7

Shows satisfaction level of students regarding online learning on 3 parameters

Satisfaction level of students with regarding to online learning

Strongly disagree (%)

Disagree (%)

Neutral (%)

Agree (%)

Strongly agree (%)

Do you agree with the assessment of applied and academic proficiency provided by these classes?

17(8.1)

45(21.3)

119(56.4)

29(13.7)

1(0.5)

How beneficent was the class material provided to you

15(7.1)

20(9.5)

117(55.5)

52(24.6)

7(3.3)

There is a competent approach as regards to online medical education

26(12.3)

57(27)

84(39.8)

42(19.9)

2(0.9)

Table 8

Showing mean is near 2.5 which means students hold online classes to be neutral (equally helful). Many of them (mean <1.7)hold that balance of the oretical and practical knowledge is much less helpful, but it is time saving much helpful (mean >2.9).

Effectiveness of online learning

Mean

SD

Reaching individual teaching demands?

2.22

0.834

Establishing ability and understanding?

2.24

0.801

Improved learning method?

2.24

0.986

Communicate effectively?

2.26

0.948

Clearing doubts beneficially

2.33

1.011

Constructive balance of practical and theoretical knowledge

1.73

0.793

Adaptable to class timings

2.85

1.066

Easy accessibility to faculty

2.56

1.042

Self disciplined learning?

2.61

1.096

Time saving ?

2.97

1.291

Discussion 

Effectiveness of balance between practical and theoretical knowledge can be overcome by using immersive Virtual Reality technologies for educational purposes seems to be quite high, which is indicated by the variety of the research domains that have applied this technology in teaching.4

Many students desired to have in person classes which cannot be replaced by online teaching, which was found out in a multicentric study done by Harris and Lee5 yet others like Lincango-Naranjo et al. felt that teaching institutions must reinforce students instruction while bearing in mind their individual growth and outlook.6

Although Dost and It has been advised to look into the negative inputs of the COVID-19 pandemic as well as early significant value to be given to address their tutoring requirements, giving cognitive assistance and carrier counselling.7 This crisis has given us chance to appraise substitute methodology of medical teaching and evaluation.8

Notwithstanding these defiance, the students have had during the first few weeks of the epidemic has escalated their trust in the usefulness of online medical teaching. While global diseases have historically generated difficulties, recognizing them is the first step in transforming them into providence.8, 9

Not withstanding these defiances, the students have had during the first few weeks of the epidemic has escalated their trust in the usefulness of online medical teaching. While global diseases have historically generated difficulties, recognizing them is the first step in transforming them into providence.7, 8, 9, 10

In a review article by O’ Doherty, DromeyM, emphasis was laid on the importance that postgraduate training bodies, medical schools and their trainers must be aware about Institutional support as well when encouraging this (online) method of learning.11

Conclusion

Development of internet telecommunications has lead about a revolt in the field of medical discipline with the metamorphosis of e-studying, e-guidance and e-analysis establishing the layout of e-education. This will facilitate flexible and collective studying by the trainee and the teachers. Although online teaching is time-saving it cannot be replaced by offline teaching. Online teaching can become effective means of communication provided it is used as blended type of learning as it would lead to more growth of expert skills and preparation of an effective professional career.

Source of Funding

None.

Conflict of Interest

None.

Acknowledgments

The authors acknowledge the overwhelming contribution of second and third year medical students of Deccan College of Medical Sciences

References

1 

M H Rajab A M Gazal K Alkattan Challenges to Online Medical Education During the COVID-19 PandemicCureus2020127896610.7759/cureus.8966

2 

A J Harries C Lee L Jones R M Rodriguez J A Davis M B Osborn Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on medical students: a multicenter quantitative studyBMC Med Educ20212114

3 

N Kaur D Dwivedi J Arora A Gandhi Study of the effectiveness of e-learning to conventional teaching in medical undergraduates amid COVID-19 pandemicNatl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol2020107563710.5455/njppp.2020.10.04096202028042020

4 

J Radianti T A Majchrzak J Fromm I Wohlgenannt Majchrzakav A systematic review of immersive virtual reality applications for higher education: Design elements, lessons learned, and research agendaComputers Educ202014710377810.1016/j.compedu.2019.103778

5 

A J Harries C Lee L Jones Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on medical students: a multicenter quantitative studyBMC Med Educ20212114

6 

E L Naranjo N E Suarez P S Pazmino Paradigms about the COVID-19 pandemic: knowledge, attitudes and practices from medical studentsBMC Med Educ202121128

7 

M H Rajab A M Gazal K Alkattan Challengesto Online Medical Education During the COVID-19 PandemicCureus2020127896610.7759/cureus.8966

8 

S Giliyaru G Hegde S Gajjala O Vemuri C Azzopardi P Hurley COVID-19 pandemic and medical educationIndian J Med Sci2021731649

9 

A J Harries C Lee L Jones Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on medical students: a multicenter quantitative studyBMC Med Educ2021211410.1186/s12909-020-02462-1

10 

S Dost A Hossain M Shehab A Abdelwahed L A Nusair Perceptions of medical students towards online teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic: a national cross-sectional survey of 2721 UK medical studentsBMJ Open20201011e04237810.1136/bmjopen-2020-042378PMCID

11 

D O doherty J Lougheed Barriers and solutions to online learning in medical education - an integrative reviewBMC Med Educ20181813010.1186/s12909-018-1240-0



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© This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Article type

Original Article


Article page

195-199


Authors Details

Vaseemunnisa Begum, Neeraj Sadiq, Ghulam Subhani, Asma Gulnaaz, Mohammed Mohsin, Nageswari Devi


Article History

Received : 25-07-2021

Accepted : 09-08-2021

Available online : 04-09-2021


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